Oak Valley was established in 1985 as a community out station for Anangu people displaced from the Maralinga Lands for the British atomic tests. Oak Valley (Maralinga) Inc. has project managed the establishment and development of the community including the provision of housing, roads and other infrastructure.
Oak Valley is now serviced with a store, mechanics garage, health clinic, aged care centre, a new school and an airstrip. The community also has a CDEP program and arts workshop for local employment and cultural development activities.
Bordering the Great Victoria Desert, Oak Valley boasts some beautiful scenery - brilliant red soil, native eucalypts and of course, the native Desert Oak which the township is named after.
The local population ranges from 80 -100. At times during special cultural activities the population has risen to 1,500 people, with visitors from neighbouring communities.